Welding is an essential process for the success of any fabrication work in Nigeria, and the desire of every welder is to have all the necessary equipment to suit any project. Necessary welding supplies should be on every welders list when preparing for a fabrication project. One of the essential safety welding supplies is the autodarkening welding mask. An autodarkening welding mask is a necessary eye protection tool often used in welding.The Auto-darkening welding helmet has a dual defense function, protecting welding workers' eyes. Moreover, the helmet uses materials with heat resistance, which can protect the user from the harmful radiation. For example, the Ingco auto-darkening welding mask is solid and designed to last long. Another important welding supply is the welder's hand glove. Welding gloves are personal protective equipment (PPE) that protect the hands of welders from the hazards of welding. These gloves allow digit articulation while protecting the operator from electrical shock, extreme heat, and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, and also provide abrasion resistance and enhanced grip. The Hellog welder’s welding glove Welding gloves are personal protective equipment (PPE) that protect the hands of welders from the hazards of welding. These gloves allow digit articulation while protecting the operator from electrical shock, extreme heat, and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, and also provide abrasion resistance and enhanced grip.
In this article, we aim to present you with the top 12 essential welding tools that should be on any welder's checklist. We have included the price range for each item, and after consulting with fellow welders, we believe that this list is comprehensive enough to get you started as is customary with the Tikweld team, we have consulted with industry stakeholders to come up with this essential list. From safety equipment to basic tools and fabrication equipment, you'll find everything you need here.
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Welding and Fabrication equipment
Fabrication equipment is essential for any welding project. The right choice of welding machine can help welders achieve any form of welding.
1. Welding machine
Welding machines are one of the most important equipment needed for fabrication as it defined the process to join two metals such as stainless steel, brass, aluminum, iron, and bronze. The Esab warrior 500i Multipurpose Inverter arc welding machine is designed for heavy-duty productivity with up to 500 Amps delivered with superb arc characteristics.
Importance of Having welding machines
- A welding machine is a powerful tool used to fuse two pieces of metal together. This machine holds the metal pieces in place, melts them, and uses pressure to join them. It is an essential tool for any construction-related job which requires metalwork.
Types of welding machines and Their Benefits
Different types of welding machines are designed for various form of fabrication activity , such as TIG welding, MIG welding, and stick welding.
- Tungsten Inert Gas welding is known as TIG welding wherein reactive metal such as magnesium and aluminum are welded together. TIG Welding Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is a precise and versatile technique ideal for welding thin materials, such as those used in the aerospace and medical industries. TIG welding uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to create a small, focused arc that melts the metal and forms the weld. This technique offers precise control over the heat input, which can help to prevent warping or distortion of the material. However, TIG welding can be time-consuming and requires a high degree of skill and experience. The process of joining is done manually and with this process, various types of joins such as corner joining, butt joining, lapping, or t-joints are achieved.
- MIG Welding Metal inert gas (MIG) welding is a popular technique for welding thicker materials, such as those used in the automotive and construction industries. MIG welding uses a consumable wire electrode fed through a gun and melted to form the weld. This technique is faster and easier to learn than TIG welding, but it can produce more spatter and may offer a different level of precision. This process is applied to stick aluminum with non-iron metals.
- Stick Welding Stick welding, also known as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), is a versatile and cost-effective technique commonly used in construction and manufacturing. Stick welding uses a consumable electrode coated in flux that melts and forms the weld. This technique is relatively easy to learn and can be used in various positions and on various materials. However, it can produce a lot of spatters and may offer a different level of control than TIG welding. Stick welding is very commonly used for many types of metals for the fabrication of low alloy steel, high alloy steel, cast iron, ductile iron and carbon steel. It can be used to weld non-ferrous materials though this is not routinely done. It can also be used on copper, nickel, their alloys, and aluminum at a push.
Choosing the Right Welding machine for Fabrication
Choosing the right welder comes down to finding what machine fits your needs. The five key points just covered will aid you in that process and include:
- Determine the types of metal you will be welding.
- Identify the thickness range you intend to work with (and the output amps needed).
- Think about where you will be working (e.g., indoors vs. outdoors).
- Compare key features of competing welders, like the duty cycle.
- Decide if you need compressed gas. If you do, make the appropriate arrangements.
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2. Welding electrode
Welding electrodes are metal wires with baked on chemical coatings. The rod is used to sustain the welding arc and to provide the filler metal required for the joint to be welded. The coating protects the metal from damage, stabilizes the arc, and improves the weld.
Importance of welding electrode
Electrodes are suitable to work in all positions with excellent welding technological properties, stable arc less splash, shaped good appearance, easy for removal of slag layer, easy for striking arc and restriking. For example the arc.E6013 welding electrode used for welding common carton steel structure, suitable for small thin plates. The E6013 Welding electrode has excellent fabrication weld ability, suitable for welding on thin plate of low-carbon steel or light structures where a beautiful bead appearance is requested.
Types of welding electrode
a)The low-hydrogen class of electrodes;
This is the most widely used for SMAW. Common applications include welding thick metal sections, restrained joints, and making critical welds for construction of bridges, offshore, and power generation. The low hydrogen class of electrodes are;
- 7018 Electrodes
The 7018 electrodes are often referred to as a “low hydrogen electrode” that features a low moisture coating, which reduces the level of hydrogen that seeps into a weld. This type of electrode produces high-quality, crack-resistant weld points with medium penetration. These electrodes must remain dry before use. The minimum weld tensile strength produced by this type of electrode is around 70,000 psi, according to Metal Web News. 7018 electrodes also can be held in any position while welding. 7018 electrodes are engineered to operate under either direct currents or alternating currents. According to Welding Tips and Tricks, this type of electrode features an iron powder, low hydrogen outer coating.
b)Stainless steel electrode:
Stainless steel welding electrodes are a popular choice for welding applications across various industries, from construction to aerospace to medical. But to get the best results, choosing the proper welding technique for the job is essential.
Stainless steel electrodes are denoted with the following codes;
- 308 electrodes are used to weld unstabilized 18-8 stainless steels such as Types 301, 302, 304. 305, and 308. 308 electrodes provide corrosion resistance and physical properties equal to or greater than the steels for which they are recommended. Typical applications include dairy, distillery and restaurant equipment, and chemical tanks.
- 308L is an extra low carbon electrode used to weld Types 304L and 347. The weld deposit contains a maximum of .04% carbon, which minimizes the formation of chromium carbides, and consequent susceptibility to intergranular corrosion, The weld deposit, with controlled ferrite, gives excellent notch toughness at -320°F (-196°C).
- 309 electrodes are used for the welding of similar alloys in wrought and cast form, as well as for dissimilar metals such as stainless steels to carbon or low alloy steels. They also can be used for a barrier layer before cladding. Welding of Types 405 and 430 can be accomplished without preheat, while Types 410, 442, and 446 may call for preheating of a minimum of 300°F (150°C).
- 309L electrodes gives a weld deposit similar to 309, with reduced carbon levels (.04% maximum) that offer increased resistance to intergranular corrosion. Type 309L is ideal for joining stainless steels to themselves or to carbon or low alloy steels. 309L is preferred to 309 for cladding over carbon or low alloy steels, as well as dissimilar joints which undergo heat treatment.
- 310 electrodes are used to weld stainless steels of similar composition in wrought and cast form. The weld deposit is fully austenitic, and as such calls for minimum heat input during welding.
- 312 electrodes are used for welding wrought and cast alloys of similar composition as well as for welding of dissimilar metals. The weld deposits exhibit high tensile strength and after good resistance to abrasion.
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c)Mild steel welding electrode;
These electrodes have considerable tensile, yield strength and can sustain a long-standing arc and are mostly applied in the welding processes of mild steels, galvanized and low alloy steels. Industries such as in manufacturing, automobile repairing usually use mild steel electrodes. Mild steel electrodes are usually E60 or E70.
- E6013 welding rod
E6013 welding rod are mild steel electrodes, it is considered one of the most commonly-used rods for amateurs and beginners. Hence, it is also known as ‘sheet metal rod’, ‘beginners’ rod’ or ‘easy rod’.
E6013 is characterized as follows:
E stands for electrode.
60 stands for tensile strength which is almost 60,000 pounds per inch.
1 stands for position of electrode. This welding rod can be used for all four positions – flat, horizontal, vertical and overhead.
3 stands with the type of slag, flux composition and power supply. This welding rod can be used for AC or DC straight as well as for reverse polarity.
E6013 electrode flux coating contains ferromanganese, cellulose, rutile, potassium silicate as a binder, and other siliceous materials. The potassium compounds allow it to operate with AC at low amperages and low open-circuit voltages. When the coating burns, the flux coating of this electrode creates carbon dioxide. It also has a high presence of titanium.
- E6010 Welding electrode
E6010 is a quick-starting, cellulosic mild steel electrode with outstanding arc stability, penetration, and wash-in. It is ideal for welding in all positions and produces an X-ray quality weld with light slag that's easy to remove.
- E7018 Welding electrode
E7018 is a basic electrode designed to improve deposition rate and bead appearance for welding mild and low alloyed steels under conditions of high restraint.
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How to select the right welding electrode
The type of electrode used depends on the specific properties required in the weld deposited. These include corrosion resistance, ductility, high tensile strength, the type of base metal to be welded, the position of the weld (flat, horizontal, vertical, or overhead), and the type of current and polarity required.
3. A welding table or a workbench;
Welding on the ground is impractical, uncomfortable, and may even put your safety at risk. Before you start a welding project, you need to find a solid surface to work on for example the metal work bench.
4. An Angle Grinder;
An angle grinder is a handheld power tool that can be used for a variety of metal fabrication jobs that include cutting, grinding, deburring, finishing and polishing. The most common types of angle grinder tools are powered by electricity; either corded or battery powered.
Types of Angle grinders
5. Welding Clamps;
Clamps are great for holding a given piece of steel sheet or tube from a variety of potential angles, which allows for the creation of inside and outside corners during welding. Magnets, on the other hand, are great for initiating a tack weld or for soldering together thin pieces of sheet metal.
Welding clamps are metal sheet or leg holders that temporarily hold two pieces of materials together tightly. This makes it easier for welders to run the arc and weld the pieces together without worrying about movements in the sheets. The clamps enable you to weld pieces together in a tight alignment.
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When it comes to welding, every measurement needs to be precise and that requires using dedicated measuring tools. Depending on your project and your preference, this usually means anything from measuring tape, calipers, framing squares or metal rulers. I personally prefer to use a digital caliper whenever possible since I find it the easiest and most precise measuring too, but anything else that fits the mantra of “measure twice, cut (or weld in this case) once” is a good option
Welding pliers enable welders to work with their lamps in a way that’s safe and quick. As you know, welding lamps have lots of interchangeable accessories for specific tasks. Since lamps are burning hot, it’s often impossible to remove accessories directly by hand. In those situations, welders use welding pliers.
Safety welding equipment
8. Auto Darkening Welding mask
When welding starts the auto darkening welding mask features a filter that enable welders to see their work at comfortable light levels with constant eye and face protection. Today autodarkening filters turn dark the instant an arc is struck and become semi transparent again when welding stops.
Auto Darkening technology also reduces the neck strain associated with "helmet nodding." In theory, this should help to increase the accuracy of electrode placement because the welder does not have to raise the helmet to get a closer look at the weld in progress. This, in turn, possibly reduces the need for grinding and rework.
Without helmet nodding, the welder also can get into tighter, cramped spaces with full protection and a clear view, making awkward welds significantly easier.
Gloves pretty much explain themselves. Welding gloves are made of multiple layers of durable materials and insulation to shield users from heat and flying sparks. It’s simple to purchase welding gloves anywhere that sells gloves, but they’re necessary for any welding one might undertake. Typically, there are two sorts to be aware of:
- MIG welding gloves: When stabilizing the dominant hand throughout a weld, MIG welding gloves protect the resting hand by being thicker and having to cushion the back of the hand. The looser fitting shape makes it simple to remove the glove if it gets too hot.
- TIG welding gloves are softer and thinner and are used when accuracy is crucial. When TIG welding, skill is essential, and the gloves will fit more snugly to enable accurate movement while holding the rod and flame. It is crucial to ensure one wears the appropriate gloves for the task.
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10. Welding Jacket
Welding jackets can be made from different protective materials, from leather to fire-resistant wool. A welding jacket won’t catch fire if a piece of burning matter falls on its surface, keeping welders from sustaining burns and injuries to their front while welding and working in extreme heat.
A major advantage of wearing a welding jacket is that it protects all the body parts that are typically more exposed, such as the worker’s neck or the upper part of the arms.
11. Welding shoes
Welding shoes are a distinctive piece of PPE; they are fire-resistant and have a steel-toe top. They are made to provide a secure footing so that the welder won’t trip or fall during welding. As with other welding PPE, such shoes are mandatory on worksites.
12. Gas Cylinder Trolley
However, since the cylinders are tall and heavy, moving them is difficult without trolleys. If workers try transporting them without a proper tool, they risk dropping the cylinder and injuring themselves.
That’s why gas cylinder trolleys deserve their place on this list of indispensable welding equipment. They represent safe and practical means of transporting cylinders across worksites.
Prices of welding equipment for Fabrication work
|S/N||Welding Equipment||Price Range #|
|2.||Welding Electrode||7,500- 11,000|
|9.||Auto Darkening mask||45,000-57,000|
|12.||Gas cylinder Trolley||55,000-70,000|
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Investing in quality welding supplies can ensure a safe welding process. These are just a few examples of essential welding supplies that every welder in Nigeria should have in their fabrication workshop.
Whether you’re interested in welding as a career or as a hobby, you’re probably wondering how you can get started without breaking the bank then review our welding tools list. You might have heard that getting into welding is extremely expensive, but the truth is that there are only a couple of essential welding tools that you’ll use regularly. Surely, there are plenty of other accessories on the market and more advanced professional tools used by dedicated welding shops, but you can start melting metal by equipping your shop with just these starting items. Contact Tikweld welding supplies for your welding supplies in Nigeria.
Frequently Asked Questions
Q1 What tool is used for welding?
The welding machine, which is the main instrument a welder uses to fuse materials, is the most crucial tool in their toolkit. These devices, also referred to as welding guns and welders, supply the energy and components needed to produce the heat necessary to melt materials.
Q2 What are the 4 things you need before welding?
The Six Essential Things to Know Before You Begin Welding: Ensure you have the proper equipment, such as a helmet, gloves, safety glasses, and a fire-resistant jacket, before you ever consider starting a welding project.
Q3 What safety equipment is used for welding?
It is necessary to wear protective gear for the eyes, hands, head, and body (such as leather gloves, aprons, gauntlets, side-shielded safety glasses, helmets, or goggles for welders) according to the potential risks involved in welding, cutting, brazing, soldering, grinding, or other spark-producing operations.